Modeling and Optimization of Building Mix and Energy Supply Technology for Urban Districts

TitleModeling and Optimization of Building Mix and Energy Supply Technology for Urban Districts
Publication TypeTechnical Report
AuthorsBest, R., F. Flager, and M. Lepech
Date Published09/2015

Reducing the energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions of urban areas is paramount in research and practice, encompassing strategies to both reduce energy consumption and carbon intensity in both energy supply and demand. Most methods focus on one of these two approaches but few integrate decisions for supply and demand simultaneously. This paper presents a novel model that endogenously simulates energy supply and demand at a district scale on an hourly time scale. Demand is specified for a variety of building uses, and losses and municipal loads are calculated from the number of buildings in the district. Energy supply is modeled using technology-specific classes, allowing easy addition of specific equipment or types of energy generation. Standard interfaces allow
expansion of the model to include new types of energy supply and demand. The model can be used for analysis of a single design alternative or optimization over a large design space, allowing exploration of various densities, mixes of uses, and energy supply technologies. An example optimization is provided for a community near San Francisco, California. This example uses 21 building types, 32 combined heat and power engines, and 16 chillers. The results demonstrate the ability to compare performance tradeoffs and optimize for three objectives: life cycle cost, annual carbon dioxide emissions, and overall system efficiency.
Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Dr. Ben Schwegler for his assistance in this work. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-114747. This research has additionally been supported by the Stanford Graduate Fellowship Program and the Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE).

KeywordsCombined heat and power, Design - Process models - Simulation - Site Layout - Virtual Design and Construction Other Keywords: Energy systems, Energy modeling
Year of Publication2017
TR221.pdf2.15 MB

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