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Design Your Project Organization as Engineers Design Bridges

TitleDesign Your Project Organization as Engineers Design Bridges
Publication TypeWorking Paper
Year of Publication2002
AuthorsLevitt, RE, Kunz, J
Date Published07/2002
Publication Languageeng
KeywordsCenter for Integrated Facility Engineering, CIFE, Coordination, Hidden Effort, Organization Models, Simulation, Stanford University, Total Effort, VDT, Virtual Design Team
AbstractAEC owners and contractors constantly strive to increase performance of new facilities and simultaneously reduce design-development time and cost. Yet, many companies have found that the savings in time that they actually achieve are far less than they expected, and that facilities developed in this way frequently both fail to meet performance objectives and have serious quality flaws. Why the problem? People work as hard as they can. But, by overlapping highly interdependent tasks, projects generate huge and largely unanticipated volumes of coordination and rework overhead that overwhelm even the most dedicated product development organizations. This coordination and rework is hidden effort: it is not planned, tracked, managed or even acknowledged except by the overworked staff. Organization models represent the design and construction process of a facility development project, the human groups and individuals involved in the project, and their respective attributes and relationships. An organization model graphically shows and links the plan with the organization chart. The analyses graphically show the predicted schedule, breakdown of total effort into direct work and hidden effort, i.e., coordination, rework and waiting; schedule risks, and the demand and backlog of groups and individuals. We discuss the use of organization models both for project design and week-to-week management and objective tracking.
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