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Humanware, Human Error, and Hiyari-Hat: a Casual-chain of Effects and a Template of Unsafe Symptoms

TitleHumanware, Human Error, and Hiyari-Hat: a Casual-chain of Effects and a Template of Unsafe Symptoms
Publication TypeTechnical Report
Year of Publication1992
AuthorsNishigaki, S, Vavrin, J, Kano, N, Haga, T, Kunz, J, Law, K
Date Published08/1992
Publication Languageeng
KeywordsAccident-Prevention, Center for Integrated Facility Engineering, CIFE, Human Error, Humanware, Stanford University
AbstractFor many years, the Japanese construction industry has practiced several different accident-prevention activities. In spite of these safety prevention activities, occupational accidents recur. Why? This paper reports on a safety survey of construction workers in the Japanese construction industry. The survey had 7955 responses; 2588 responses reported experiencing "Hiyari-Hat," or Near-Miss accidents. These respondents also reported on the nature and apparent causes of their near-miss accidents. In this paper, we found most accidents occur because of "poor humanware," whene, "humanware" is defined as a function of leadership, followership and the reciprocal interaction between the two. We conclude that the underlying causes of "Hiyari-Hat" often include "poor humanware" and most frequently end with human error of individual workers. This paper proposes a "Hiyari-Hat Model" which describes a "Causal-chain of Effects" and presents a "Template" that summarizes "Unsafe symptoms" among humanware, human error and Hiyari-Hat. It enables first-line employees to monitor and diagnose their own behavior systematically on a timely basis and to easily translate the results of the diagnosis into practical day-to-day accident prevention activities.
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