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The VDC Scorecard: Formulation and Validation

TitleThe VDC Scorecard: Formulation and Validation
Publication TypeWorking Paper
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsKam, C, Senaratna, D, McKinney, B, Xiao, Y, Song, M
Date Published07/2016
Publication Languageeng
Keywordsassessment, BIM, building information models, Center for Integrated Facility Engineering, CIFE, evaluation, Project Management, Stanford University
AbstractRecent success of virtual design and construction (VDC) can be attributed to the wider adoption of product modeling or building information modeling (BIM) in the AEC industry. Despite this fact, the development of methodologies to assess the maturity of VDC implementation is lagging compared with other innovations in the AEC industry, such as green building assessment frameworks. This is evidenced by the fact that the existing methodologies for assessing the maturity of VDC have been applied to a limited number of projects for short time scales, and that hence the methodologies have been intermittent or static. Most of the methodologies also pay attention to only technical aspects, overlooking social collaboration in assessment. To address this problem, researchers at Stanford University’s Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE) have drawn from existing research and observations of professional practice to formulate the VDC Scorecard with the goal of making an assessment methodology adaptive, quantifiable, holistic, and practical. The VDC Scorecard assesses the maturity of the VDC implementation of a project across 4 Areas, 10 Divisions, and 56 Measures, and deploys the Confidence Level measured by 7 factors to indicate the accuracy of scores. To keep up with the rapid change of technologies, it aims to build an adaptive scoring system based on evolving industry norms instead of prefixed norms valid for a short period. However, since the industry norms of 4 Areas, 10 Divisions, and 56 Measures could not be compiled at the beginning of the research, the definitions of the percentile of the five tiers of practice (conventional practice, typical practice, advanced practice, best practice, and innovative practice) were drawn from subject matter experts’ opinions. These experts’ percentile for each measure was then calibrated based on the actual sample percentile collected from 108 projects. A correlation test was also done between individual measures and the overall score, in 2 which measures that were found to correlate poorly were revisited for review and revision. The data sets came from 2 countries in North America, 5 in Europe, 4 in Asia, and 1 in Oceania. They cover 11 facility types, 5 delivery methods, and 5 project phases, making the scorecard holistic. The research process also involved the development of a manual, a web interface, and lite version to facilitate communication and understanding, making the scorecard practical. The initial goal of developing the VDC Scorecard was to make it adaptive, quantifiable, holistic, and practical, and the results and practitioners’ feedback from the research have proven these characteristics.
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